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The capital of Iran is Tehran.
The flag of Iran is three equal horizontal bands of green (top),
white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the
shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centred in the white band.
Allah Akbar (God is Great) - in white Arabic script - is repeated 11
times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red
Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in
1979; after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and the shah was forced into exile.
Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of
government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar,
referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader; who, according to the constitution, is
accountable only to the Assembly of Experts.
Iranian-US relations have been strained since a group of Iranian
students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4th November, 1979 and held it until 20th
During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that
eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian
military forces, between 1987 and 1988.
Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its
activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US economic
sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement.
Following the election of the reformist Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad
Khatami as president, in 1997, and similarly a reformist Majles (parliament), in 2000, a
campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated.
The movement floundered as conservative politicians prevented reform
measures from being enacted, increased repressive measures, and made electoral gains
Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing
through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives re-established control over Iran's elected
government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of an
ultra-conservative layman as president.
Middle East - bordering the Gulf of Oman,
the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea; between Iraq and Pakistan.
(ostanha, singular - ostan)
Ardabil; Azarbayjan-e Gharbi; Azarbayjan-e Sharqi; Bushehr; Chahar
Mahall va Bakhtiari; Esfahan; Fars; Gilan; Golestan; Hamadan; Hormozgan; Ilam; Kerman;
Kermanshah; Khorasan-e Janubi; Khorasan-e Razavi; Khorasan-e Shemali; Khuzestan;
Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad; Kordestan; Lorestan; Markazi; Mazandaran; Qazvin; Qom; Semnan;
Sistan va Baluchestan; Tehran; Yazd; Zanjan.
1st April, 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed).
Republic Day: 1st April.
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