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If you're on a guided tour in Africa, your chances of encountering problems are minimal.

Tour operators make it their business to know the areas they travel to, so you are never at any undue risk.


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General Safety Tips

If you're travelling alone in Africa, keep up-to-date with local news so you know about potential hot spots.

Africa News:
All Africa carries top stories from most of Africa's local newspapers, and is updated daily.

Get a local perspective by asking someone where you're staying to give you a run-down on any unsafe areas, and codes of dress and behaviour.

As with anywhere in the world, when you're in a city, err on the side of caution.

Don't openly carry valuables. If you must carry your passport and money, keep them in a buttoned-down pocket or well-concealed on your person.

Driving in Africa can often be a pretty adventurous undertaking. In many countries, and particularly in rural areas, roads are often poorly maintained and it's not unusual to come across large domestic animals such as sheep and cattle.

The best advice is to stay alert, use your seatbelts and avoid travelling at night. Also, try and avoid deserted areas in Africa, particularly at night.

If you're in a car, try and park in well-lit populated areas; always keep the car locked, even when you're in it, and don't leave valuables where they can be seen.

If you're thinking of hitchhiking in Africa, you'll need to understand the high risks involved. It is often exciting, always potentially dangerous - particularly in and around urban centres, or after dark - and isn't advised if safety is a priority.

When you're travelling in Africa, stay aware of what's going on around you. If you do this, you'll have a good chance of enjoying a problem-free holiday.

Safety on Safari

All reserves have a set of rules that you need to follow to ensure your safety.

Many of the animals you'll come across in Africa, particularly lion, hippo, elephant and buffalo, are dangerous.

Stay in your car and keep a reasonable distance, especially with elephants, in case you need to beat a hasty retreat.

Africa has its fair share of poisonous snakes; though they are rarely encountered and, when they are, will more often than not try to get away as quickly as possible.

However, if you plan on doing any walking in the African bush, take along boots, socks and long trousers as a precautionary measure (which also helps with ticks) and always look where you're putting your feet.

Avoid swimming in rivers that have hippos and crocodiles.

Safaris in Africa

Weather in Africa

Because the weather in Africa is often unpredictable - the rains can sometimes be heavy one season, sometimes they can fail altogether - this information is a rough guideline only.

Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe:
Summer rainfall from late October to early April; cool to warm dry sunny winter days from May to early October.

Lesotho:
Summer from November to January and winter from May to July, with predominantly summer rainfall from September to April.

Kenya:
Summer from December to March and winter from July to September, with long rains from March to May and short rains between November and December.

Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia:
Summer from around December to March and winter in Malawi from June to July; in Tanzania from March to May; and in Zambia from April to August.

All three countries have long rains from November to April.

Mozambique:
Summer from October to March and winter from April to September, with high summer humidity and showers between September and April.

South Africa:
Summer from September to April and winter from May to August, with summer rainfall in the north and winter rainfall in the south.

Swaziland:
Summer from September to April and winter from May to August, with predominantly summer rainfall.

Malaria in Africa

If you're travelling to a malaria area, you'll need to take the following precautions:

Apply insect repellent to exposed skin - recommended repellents contain 20%-35% DEET, and there are a number of brands on the market.

Wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants if you're outdoors at night.

Use a mosquito net if your tent or room isn't screened or air-conditioned; and spray insecticide or burn a mosquito coil before going to bed.

Take the malaria tablets recommended for the region you're travelling to, and keep taking them until the course is complete.

British Airways Travel Clinics provide a comprehensive malaria avoidance programme. You can contact them in Johannesburg at +27 11 807 3132, and in Cape Town at +27 21 419 3172.

If you come down with flu-like symptoms either during, or within four to six weeks after, your visit to a malaria area, seek a doctor's advice immediately.

Health Precautions

Besides Malaria, there are other insect-borne diseases that you might encounter in Africa; such as dengue and sleeping sickness.

However, these are less common and using the same precautions as you would against mosquito bites, namely long-sleeved clothes and trousers, repellents and mosquito nets, will help prevent them.

Ask your travel consultant about the safety of drinking water in the areas you'll be visiting. In countries where drinking water isn't properly regulated, stick to bottled or boiled water and avoid tap water, water fountains and ice cubes.

Use common sense when it comes to food and beverages. If you're unsure of their origin, don't touch them.

If you're walking, it's best to wear shoes at all times.

AIDS is rife throughout Africa, so if you're planning to have intimate contact with the locals always use condoms to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Avoid handling strange animals, especially monkeys, dogs and cats.

Avoid swimming in stagnant water.

Centre for Disease Control:
Health information on specific destinations and what to know before you go.

Recommended Vaccinations

See your doctor at least 4-6 weeks before your trip to allow time for vaccines to take effect.

Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG).

Hepatitis B, if you might be exposed to blood (for example, health-care workers), have sexual contact with the local population, stay longer than 6 months, or be exposed through medical treatment.

Rabies, if you come into direct contact with wild or domestic animals.

Typhoid, particularly if you're visiting developing countries.

Booster doses for tetanus-diphtheria, measles and a one-time dose of polio vaccine for adults, as needed.

Yellow Fever

Although there is no risk for of yellow fever in Southern Africa, a yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required for entry into certain countries, particularly if you're coming from a country in tropical South America or elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa.

East African countries are tropical countries where diseases that you are likely to catch are different from other parts of the world. Consult your local doctor at least a month before travelling to make sure you have appropriate vaccinations and protection against various diseases. The most important and mandatory vaccine while visiting East Africa is the yellow fever vaccine. Your health provider will also recommend other vaccines depending on your country of origin.
Sent in by Nadzua Matara.

What to Bring

If you're going on safari, pack comfortable walking shoes and khaki, brown or beige casual clothes.

Long-sleeved shirts and trousers will help protect you against the sun and insect bites.

Take a warm jacket for game drives and, if you're going in summer, make sure it's water-proof.

Smart-casual clothes for evening wear, although a few up-market destinations will expect something more formal - check with your travel consultant if you're not sure.

Malaria tablets, insect repellent and (if necessary) a mosquito net (see Malaria above).

Sunblock, sunglasses and hat - it gets very hot under the African sun.

If you need prescription medications, make sure you have enough to last during your trip and make a copy of the prescription(s).

It's also worthwhile taking over-the-counter anti-diarrhoea medicine (just in case!).

Visa or MasterCard, credit card and/or travellers cheques - Diners and American Express are not always accepted.

Keep travel documents in a safe place - many airlines no longer resubmit lost tickets and require a police report if you want to avoid paying the full fare for their replacement.

Africa Travel Tips compiled with the help of Bobby Tours.

Africa Travel Guides

Africa Travel Guides - Africa Maps.

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